Symptoms and Diagnoses

All personality disorders are characterized by a long-term behavior and inner experience that differs significantly from cultural expectations. The pattern of experience and behavior begins by late adolescence or early adulthood, and causes distress or problems in functioning. The pattern is seen in at least two of the following areas:

  • Thinking about oneself and others
  • Responding emotionally
  • Relating to other people
  • Controlling one's behavior

Cluster A: Odd or Eccentric Behavior

Paranoid personality disorder is a pattern of distrust and suspiciousness where others' motives are seen as mean or spiteful.

Schizoid personality disorder is a pattern of detachment from social relationships and a limited range of emotional expression.

Schizotypal personality disorder is a pattern of acute discomfort in close relationships, distortions in thinking or perception, and eccentric behavior.

Cluster B: Dramatic, Emotional, or Erratic Behavior

Antisocial personality disorder is a pattern of disregarding or violating the rights of others.

Borderline personality disorder is a pattern of impulsivity and instability in personal relationships, emotional response, and self-image.

Histrionic personality disorder is a pattern of excessive emotion and attention seeking.

Narcissistic personality disorder is a pattern of need for admiration and lack of empathy for others.

Cluster C: Anxious or Fearful Behavior

Avoidant personality disorder is a pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and extreme sensitivity to criticism.

Dependent personality disorder is a pattern of needing to be taken care of and submissive and clingy behavior.

Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder is a pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control. This is NOT the same as obsessive-compulsive disorder.