Play 0:00 A-C Return to top12-step programA free treatment and recovery program for people suffering from alcohol or substance abuse and addiction. 12-step programs are also available for family members of addicts.AcamprosateA prescription medication used to treat alcohol addiction.Acute stress disorderA trauma-related disorder in which symptoms persist between three days and one month following the traumatic event.AddictionThe compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance (e.g., drugs, alcohol) or activity (e.g., gambling, pornography).Adjustment disordersA group of stressor-related disorders characterized by the development of emotional or behavioral symptoms in response to an identifiable stressor occurring within three months of the onset of the stressor. Anti-anxiety medicationA prescription medication used to treat anxiety disorders.AntidepressantA prescription medication used to treat depressive disorders.AntihistamineA type of over-the-counter medication typically used to treat allergies, but sometimes used as a sleep aid.Antisocial personality disorderA type of personality disorder (Cluster B) characterized by a pattern of disregarding or violating the rights of others.Anxiety disordersA group of mental disorders in which a person feels fear or anxiety that is disproportionate to the situation and hinders their ability to function normally.Arousal symptomsA group of symptoms of a trauma-related disorder that includes hyper-vigilance, exaggerated startle response, irritable or angry outbursts, sleep disturbance, and problems concentrating.Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)A type of neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.Avoidance symptomsA group of symptoms of a trauma-related disorder that includes efforts to avoid thoughts, feelings, memories, and reminders of the traumatic event.Avoidant personality disorderA type of personality disorder (Cluster C) characterized by a pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and extreme sensitivity to criticism.Behavioral parent management training (parenting skills training)A type of training that teaches parents the skills they need to encourage and reward positive behaviors in their children.Behavioral therapyA type of psychotherapy that aims to help a person change their behavior.BenzodiazepineA type of anti-anxiety medication that promotes relaxation by opening nerve cells to a neurotransmitter that reduces nerve cell activity.Beta-blockersA type of anti-anxiety medication that works to reduce physical symptoms of anxiety by preventing norepinephrine and epinephrine from binding to certain receptors in the vascular system.Biological factorsIn the biopsychosocial model, factors relating to genetics, biochemical processes in the body, and viruses and bacteria acting on the body.Biopsychosocial modelAn approach to the diagnosis and treatment of disorders that examines the interaction of biological factors, psychological factors, and social factors.Bipolar disordersA group of brain disorders that cause changes in a person's mood, energy, and ability to function.Borderline personality disorderA type of personality disorder (Cluster B) characterized by a pattern of instability in personal relationships, emotional response, self-image, and impulsivity.Breathing-related sleep disordersA group of sleep disorders involving breathing interruptions or decreased respiration.BullyingUnwanted, aggressive behavior among school-aged children that involves a real or perceived power imbalance.BuprenorphineA type of opiate prescribed to treat an opioid addiction.BupropionA type of antidepressant medication that works by increasing certain types of activity in the brain.Circadian rhythmThe natural 24-hour cycle that helps the body know when to sleep.Cluster A personality disordersA group of three personality disorders characterized by odd or eccentric behavior.Cluster B personality disordersA group of four personality disorders characterized by dramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior.Cluster C personality disordersA group of three personality disorders characterized by anxious or fearful behavior.Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)A type of psychotherapy that helps people identify and change thinking and behavior patterns that are harmful or ineffective, replacing them with more accurate thoughts and functional behaviors.Cognitive restructuringAn element of cognitive behavior therapy that helps people make sense of bad memories and understand a traumatic event in a realistic way.CortisolA natural hormone that the body releases in response to stress.D-H Return to topDependent personality disorderA type of personality disorder (Cluster C) characterized by a pattern of needing to be taken care of and submissive and clingy behavior.Depression (major depressive disorder)A common mental disorder that is characterized by persistent low mood and a loss of pleasure or interest in activities previously enjoyed.Depressive disordersA group of mental health disorders in which the presence of sad, empty, or irritable mood, accompanied by physical and cognitive changes, significantly affect the individual's capacity to function.Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)A specific type of cognitive behavioral therapy that helps regulate emotions.Dissociative symptomsA group of symptoms of a trauma-related disorder that includes an altered sense of reality and an inability to recall important aspects of the traumatic event.DisulfiramA prescription medication used to treat nicotine addiction.DopamineA neurotransmitter that plays a role in thinking and attention.EnzymeA substance in the body that speeds biochemical reactions, either to build up or break down other molecules.EpinephrineCommonly known as adrenaline, a hormone produced by the body in response to physical and mental stress.EszopicloneA type of hypnotic prescribed to treat some sleep disorders.Exposure therapyA type of psychotherapy that focuses on confronting the fears underlying an anxiety or trauma-related disorder in order to help people engage in activities they have been avoiding.Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A neurotransmitter that reduces or inhibits nerve cell activity.Generalized anxiety disorderA type of anxiety disorder that involves persistent and excessive worry that interferes with daily activities.GeneticsThe study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity.Group therapyA setting of psychotherapy that uses group dynamics and peer interactions to increase understanding of mental disorders and/or improve social skills.HeroinAn illicit opioid drug.Histrionic personality disorderA type of personality disorder (Cluster B) characterized by a pattern of excessive emotion and attention seeking.HormoneA chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs.HypnoticsA class of prescription medications used to treat some sleep disorders.I-M Return to topImpaired self-controlA category of symptoms of substance use disorder that includes the craving or strong urge to use the substance and the desire or failed attempts to cut down or control substance use.InsomniaA type of sleep disorder involving problems getting to sleep or staying asleep.Interpersonal problemsProblems with interpersonal relationships, including family, work, social, and intimate relationships.Interpersonal therapy (IPT)A short-term form of psychotherapy treatment that helps patients understand underlying interpersonal issues that are troublesome, like unresolved grief, changes in social or work roles, conflicts with significant others, and problems relating to others.Intrusion symptomsA group of symptoms of a trauma-related disorder that includes intrusive and unwanted thoughts, memories, and dreams.Major depressive disorder (depression)A common mental disorder that is characterized by persistent low mood and a loss of pleasure or interest in activities previously enjoyed.Maladaptive behaviorA type of behavior often used as a coping strategy, but the result is harmful, dysfunctional, or non-productive.MelatoninA hormone produced by the body that is involved in regulating sleeping and waking cycles. Melatonin supplements may be used to treat some sleep disorders.Mental disorderA health condition that involves significant changes in thinking, emotions, and/or behavior and causes distress and/or problems functioning in social, work, or family environments.Mental healthMental and behavioral functioning in daily activities. Good mental health results in productive activities, healthy relationships, and an ability to adapt to change and cope with adversity.Mental illnessRefers collectively to all diagnosable mental disorders, which are health conditions that involve significant changes in thinking, emotions, and/or behavior and cause distress and/or problems functioning in social, work, or family environments.MethadoneA type of opiate prescribed to treat an opioid addiction.Military sexual trauma (MST)Sexual assault or repeated, threatening sexual harassment that occurs during military service.MirtazapineA type of antidepressant medication that works by increasing certain types of activity in the brain to maintain mental balance.N-Z Return to topNaltrexoneAn opiate prescribed to treat opioid and alcohol addictions.Narcissistic personality disorderA type of personality disorder (Cluster B) characterized by a pattern of need for admiration and lack of empathy for others.Neurodevelopmental disordersA group of mental disorders characterized by developmental deficits that produce impairments of personal, social, academic, or occupational functioning.NeurotransmittersChemical messengers in the brain that relay signals between nerve cells.NicotineThe addictive substance in tobacco products.Nightmare disorderA type of sleep disorder in which a person has repeated nightmares that cause sleep disturbances and significant distress or problems functioning during the day.Non-stimulantA type of prescription medication used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that improves focus, attention, and impulsivity.NorepinephrineA naturally occurring chemical in the body that acts as both a stress hormone and neurotransmitter. As a stress hormone, it increases heart rate, triggers the release of glucose into the blood, and increases blood flow to muscles. As a neurotransmitter, it increases alertness, arousal, and readiness for action.Obsessive-compulsive disorderAn anxiety disorder in which a person has a recurring, unwanted thought, idea, or sensation (obsession) that makes them feel driven to do something repetitively (compulsion).Obsessive-compulsive personality disorderA type of personality disorder (Cluster C) characterized by a pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control.Operational stressStress resulting from work-related factors.Opiates (opioids)A class of drugs derived from opium, which bind to opioid receptors in the brain. Opiates generally refer to prescribed medications, typically used to treat severe pain. Opioids include both prescription opiates and illicit opioid substances, such as heroin.Opioid receptorsNerve cells in the brain that control feelings of pain and pleasure.OxycodoneAn opiate prescribed to relieve severe pain.Panic attackA sudden period of intense fear that may include palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate; sweating; trembling or shaking; sensations of shortness of breath, smothering, or choking; and feeling of impending doom.Panic disorderA type of anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent and unexpected panic attacks.Paranoid personality disorderA type of personality disorder (Cluster A) characterized by a pattern of distrust and suspiciousness.Parenting skills training (behavioral parent management training)A type of training that teaches parents the skills they need to encourage and reward positive behaviors in their children.Perpetuating factorsRisk factors following a traumatic event that increase the likelihood a person will develop a trauma-related disorder.Personality disordersA group of mental disorders in which a person's way of thinking, feeling, or behaving deviates from the expectations of the culture, causes distress or problems functioning, and lasts over time.Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)A trauma-related disorder in which symptoms persist for more than one month following the traumatic event.Precipitating factorsRisk factors that surround a traumatic event that increase the likelihood a person will develop a trauma-related disorder.Predisposing factorsRisk factors that exist before a traumatic event that make a person more vulnerable to developing a trauma-related disorder.Problem-solving therapyA type of psychotherapy that aims to improve the individual's ability to cope with stressful life experiences through the development or enhancement of problem-solving skills.PsychiatristA medical doctor (an M.D. or D.O.) who specializes in mental health. Psychiatrists are qualified to assess both the mental and physical aspects of psychological problems.PsychiatryThe branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic therapyA type of psychotherapy based on the idea that behavior and mental well-being are influenced by childhood experiences and inappropriate repetitive thoughts or feelings that are unconscious.Psychological factorsIn the biopsychosocial model, factors relating to mood, behavior, and personality.PsychologistA mental health professional with an advanced degree and extensive training in research or clinical practice. Psychologists treat mental disorders with psychotherapy.PsychologyThe scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behavior in a given context.PsychotherapyAlso called talk therapy, a term for a variety of treatment techniques that aim to help a person identify and change troubling emotions, thoughts, and behaviors.RamelteonA type of hypnotic prescribed to treat some sleep disorders.ResilienceThe ability to withstand, recover, and grow in the face of stressors and changing demands.Risky useA category of symptoms of substance use disorder that includes use of the substance in risky settings and continued use despite known problems.Schizoid personality disorderA type of personality disorder (Cluster A) characterized by a pattern of detachment from relationships and a limited range of emotional expression.Schizotypal personality disorderA type of personality disorder (Cluster A) characterized by a pattern of acute discomfort in close relationships, distortions in thinking or perception, and eccentric behavior.SedativeA class of prescription medications used to treat some sleep disorders.Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)A type of antidepressant medication that works by blocking the reuptake of serotonin between nerve cells in the brain.SerotoninA neurotransmitter that is thought to regulate anxiety, happiness, and mood. Low serotonin levels are associated with depression.Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)A type of antidepressant medication that works by blocking the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine between nerve cells in the brain.Sexual assaultIntentional sexual contact, characterized by the use of force, physical threat, or abuse of authority, or when the victim does not or cannot consent.Sleep apneaA sleep disorder involving repeated episodes of breathing problems during sleep, which may cause snoring, snorting/gasping, or breathing pauses.Sleep disordersA group of mental disorders involving problems with the quality, timing, and amount of sleep, which cause problems with functioning and distress during the daytime.Social anxiety disorder (social phobia)A type of anxiety disorder in which a person has significant anxiety and discomfort about being embarrassed, humiliated, rejected, or looked down on in social interactions.Social factorsIn the biopsychosocial model, factors relating to culture, family, and socioeconomic status.Social workerMental health professional who provides individual, family, or group clinical social work services such as psychotherapy, counseling, and other forms of therapy.Specific learning disorderA type of neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a deficit or impairment in learning key academic skills, such as reading, writing, or mathematics.StimulantA type of prescription medication used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that works by increasing dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain.Substance use disordersA group of mental disorders involving use of and addiction to a substance that produces changes in areas of the brain relating to judgment, decision making, learning, memory, and behavior control.ToleranceA symptom of substance use disorder describing the need for larger amounts of the substance to get the same effect.TopiramateA prescription anti-seizure medication sometimes used in the treatment of alcohol addiction.Trauma-related disordersA group of mental disorders in which exposure to a traumatic event causes significant psychological distress.Traumatic eventA shocking, scary, or dangerous experience that affects someone emotionally.VareniclineA prescription medication used to treat nicotine addiction.Vascular systemAlso called the circulatory system, the system in the body made up of the vessels (arteries and veins) that carry blood throughout the body.Withdrawal symptomsA set of symptoms of substance use disorder that adversely affect a person when they discontinue use of the substance.ZaleplonA type of hypnotic prescribed to treat some sleep disorders.ZolpidemA type of hypnotic prescribed to treat some sleep disorders.